Instead, nurses can be considered general health promoters, with their health promotion activities based on sound knowledge and giving information to patients. Nurses Role in Health Promotion By Immunization . This has improved the availability of health-care services, reduced symptoms of chronic diseases, increased cost-effectiveness and enhanced customers' experiences of health-care services (Strömberg et al., 2003; Griffiths et al., 2007). Projects can facilitate the development of health promotion in nursing practice (Runciman et al., 2006). made critical revisions to the paper for important intellectual contents, conceptualization, support in theorizing the findings and provided material support. All of the features related to cultural aspects of the organization in which nurses work. and H.T. Nurses should be able to plan, implement and evaluate health promotion interventions and projects (Runciman et al., 2006; Whitehead, 2006b; Witt and Puntel de Almeida, 2008; Fagerström, 2009). However, the studies examined found that nurses were not familiar with social and health policy documents and that they did not apply them to their nursing practice (Benson and Latter, 1998; Whitehead, 2011). The third common defining concept of health promotion orientation was social and health policy (Benson and Latter, 1998; Whitehead, 2004, 2006a,b, 2009, 2011). Third, one researcher (V.K.) Public health-orientated chronic disease prevention and treatment has traditionally been the theoretical basis of nurses' health promotion activities (Burge and Fair, 2003; Berg et al., 2005; Whitehead, 2006c; Folke et al., 2007; Casey, 2007b; Irvine, 2007; Chambres and Thompson, 2009; Fagerström, 2009; Richard et al., 2010). In addition, skill-related competence involves teamwork, time management, information gathering and interpretation and the ability to search for information from different data sources (Irvine, 2005; Jerden et al., 2006). When in a clinic or doctor’s office, if a patient comes in with a cut, it’s the perfect time to check the chart for the last tetanus booster. Other researchers (K.T. The aim of this integrative review was to collate the findings of past research studies (1998–2011) of nurses' health promotion activities. There is growing recognition that different patient groups, such as the elderly or families with chronic diseases, have different health promotion needs. The searches were limited to studies published during the period 1998–2011 because, prior to 1998, nurses' health promotion practice was mainly linked to health education. Health promotion by nurses is associated with common universal principles of nursing. The original search identified 1141 references: 119 in the Cochrane databases; 227 in Cinah, 345 in PubMed, 128 in the Web of Science, 100 in PsycINFO and 222 in Scopus. (iv) Combine the concepts by cross-links or links between concepts in different segments or domains of the concept map. According to these papers nurses implemented a range of types of health promotion activity and applied different health promotion expertise across a wide range of nursing contexts. We identified 40 relevant English research papers. Recent studies have also revealed that health promotion activities are still unclear to nurses (Beaudet et al., 2011; Whitehead, 2011). These studies revealed that when health promotion for patient groups who need high levels of care and treatment is required, nurses must have the ability to include health promotion activities in their daily nursing practice. Managers in health-care organizations should appreciate the value of health promotion activities and ensure adequate resources for their implementation (e.g. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia, Gaining insight into the implementation of an e-learning smoking cessation course in Latin American countries, Community health agents, nurses and physicians conducting research in Brazil’s family health program, How far are we from full implementation of health promoting workplace concepts? Such orientation was described in these studies in terms of nurse–patient communication and patient, group and community participation. Concepts and examples of the theoretical basis of nurses' health promotion activities. Skill-related competence also includes the ability to support behavioural changes in patients and the skill to respond to patients' attitudes and beliefs (Burge and Fair, 2003). Systematic searches of the Cochrane databases, Cinahl, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were undertaken using the search string ‘nurs* AND professional competence* OR clinical competence* OR professional skill* OR professional knowledg* OR clinical skill* OR clinical knowledg* AND health promotion OR preventive health care OR preventive healthcare’. and H.T. Competence with respect to attitudes emerged as a positive feature of health promotion (Whitehead, 2003; Reeve et al., 2004; Spear, 2004; Cross, 2005; Irvine, 2005, 2007; Kelley and Abraham, 2007; Piper, 2008; Wilhelmsson and Lindberg, 2009). On the other hand, there has been much discussion about how to include health promotion in nursing programmes and how to redirect nurse education from being disease-orientated towards a health promotion ideology (Rush, 1997; Whitehead, 2003; Mcilfatrick, 2004). Burge and Fair, 2003; Reeve et al., 2004; Rush et al., 2005). The theoretical basis underlying nurses' health promotion activities was identified in 25 of the research papers (Benson and Latter, 1998; McDonald, 1998; Robinson and Hill, 1998; Sheilds and Lindsey, 1998; Burge and Fair, 2003; Hopia et al., 2004; Whitehead, 2004, 2006a,b,c, 2009, 2011; Berg et al., 2005; Runciman et al., 2006; Casey, 2007a,b; Folke et al., 2007; Irvine, 2007; Piper, 2008; Witt and Puntel de Almeida, 2008; Chambres and Thompson, 2009; Fagerström, 2009; Richard et al., 2010; Samarasinghe et al., 2010; Povlsen and Borup, 2011). Nurses play a huge role in illness prevention and health promotion. Combining qualitative and quantitative studies is complex and can introduce bias and error (Whittemore and Knafl, 2005). (iv) What factors contribute to nurses' ability to carry out health promotion? Education enhanced nurses' health promotion skills and health promotion projects were catalysts for health promotion in nursing practice (Goodman et al., 2011). However, because of the broad field of health promotion, more research is needed to examine the role of health promotion in nursing (Whitehead, 2011). In addition, nurses may lack skills to implement health promotion in their working place (Goodman et al., 2011). Nurses' knowledge of health promotion and their relevant practical skills were described in 18 research papers (McDonald, 1998; Nacion et al., 2000; Burge and Fair, 2003; Whitehead, 2003; Hopia et al., 2004; Reeve et al., 2004; Spear, 2004; Cross, 2005; Irvine, 2005, 2007; Rush et al., 2005; Jerden et al., 2006; Casey, 2007b; Kelley and Abraham, 2007; Piper, 2008; Witt and Puntel de Almeida, 2008; Wilhelmsson and Lindberg, 2009; Goodman et al., 2011). Nurses play an important role in promoting public health. Everyone will interact with a nurse at some point in their lives. The review found information on the theoretical basis of health promotion practice by nurses, the range of their expertise, health promotion competencies and the organizational culture associated with health promotion practice. What does it mean, really? Whitehead, 2008; Witt and Puntel de Almeida, 2008; Fagerström, 2009; Goodman et al., 2011). and H.T.) Traditionally, nurses were perceived to be healthy role models, engaging in healthy activities, not smoking and maintaining an ideal weight Burge and Fair, (2003); Reeve et al., 2004; Rush et al., 2005). Therefore, more research is needed to determine how to support nurses in implementing health promotion in their roles in a variety of health-care services. selected examples of the main concepts and these were listed on the right side of each page for clarification.

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